Najib Razak is under pressure to secure a strong mandate as he grapples with a multi-billion dollar scandal at a state fund and public anger over rising living costs.
The Telugu Desam Party (TDP) controls 16 lawmakers in India's 545-member parliament, but Modi's Bharatiya Janata Party-led coalition remains in majority.
Lawmakers in Berlin's glass-domed Reichstag voted 364-315 with nine abstentions for Angela Merkel who was then to be formally appointed by President Frank-Walter Steinmeier.
Germany's Foreign Minister Sigmar Gabriel said on Thursday he would not join Chancellor Angela Merkel's coalition government, opening the way for a new SPD figure in the high-profile post.
Ethiopia's ruling coalition is expected to meet this week to choose a new prime minister, most likely from the populous Oromo ethnic group to try and dampen the discontent behind recent anti-government demonstrations.
Chancellor Angela Merkel on Sunday vowed to work with the Social Democrats for the "good of Germany" as the centre-left party agreed to join her new coalition.
The JHU, or the National Heritage Party, said Saturday's vote showed the people were unhappy with the government of Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe, which has struggled to overcome internal divisions.
Ethiopia's ruling coalition has lost its authority and all parties should be involved in mapping the country's future, an opposition leader said on Friday, a day after the Prime Minister resigned.
Malcolm Turnbull, whose coalition holds a razor-thin majority of just one seat, said on Thursday that Barnaby Joyce had shown a "shocking error of judgment" for conducting an affair.